The Brain can teach AI a Lesson or Two

Posted by Peter Rudin on 14. May 2021 in News No Comments

The brain is considered an autonomous learning system. It can detect patterns and acquire new knowledge without external guidance. Until recently, this was not the case for AI — any data being fed to machine learning systems needed to be tagged first.

Some presumed that no such mechanism existed in biological neural networks. However, based on a combination of considerations from the current practice of A and computational neuroscience researchers came to a different conclusion.

In a recent scientific publication, the authors show that self-supervision and error backpropagation co-exists in the brain, and with a very specific area of the brain involved: the hippocampus.

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Latest Survey: Only 6% of Companies have Adopted AI

Posted by Peter Rudin on 30. April 2021 in News No Comments

In a new survey Juniper Networks found that 95% of respondents believe their organization would benefit from embedding AI into their daily operations. However, only 6% of those reported adoption of AI-powered solutions across their business.

It  is Jupiter’s second recent report to peg data issues as the reason organizations fail to successfully deploy AI. Inherent biases in the data being used create compliance risks for their organizations.

73%  of Juniper survey respondents said that their organizations were struggling with expanding their workforce to integrate with AI-systems. Executives reported that they feel it is more of a priority to hire people than to develop their own AI-Talents.

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Issues and Risks to Society with large Language Models

Posted by Peter Rudin on 16. April 2021 in News No Comments

Researchers at Google’s DeepMind have discovered major flaws in the output of large language models like GPT-3 and warn these could have serious consequences for society, like enabling deception and reinforcing bias.

The DeepMind paper joins a series of works that highlight NLP shortcomings. In late March, nearly 30 businesses and universities from around the world found major issues in an audit of five popular multilingual datasets used for machine translation.

A paper written about that audit found that in a significant fraction of the major dataset portions evaluated, less than 50% of the sentences were of acceptable quality, according to more than 50 volunteers from the NLP community. 

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Researcher Finds a Better Way to Explore the Brain

Posted by Peter Rudin on 2. April 2021 in News No Comments

Using a new class of nanoparticles, Sakhrat Khizroev, a professor of computer engineering at the University of Miami, hopes to unlock the secrets of the brain.

Using a novel class of ultrafine units called magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENPs), he and his research group are perfecting a method to talk to the brain without wires or implants as applied by Neuralink, Elon Musk’s Neurotechnology company.

Once the MENPs are inside the brain and positioned next to neurons, they can stimulate them with an external magnetic field, which in turn produces an electric field for communication and control without the use of wires. To extract the information in real time, his team plans to use a special helmet with magnetic transducers to send and pick up signals.

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This Digital NFT Painting Just Sold for 69 Million USD

Posted by Peter Rudin on 19. March 2021 in News No Comments

A work by digital artist Mike Winkelmann, better known as “Beeple,” has sold for an astonishing $69 million at world-renowned auction house Christie’s.
The work, titled “The First 5000 Days” was, according to Christie’s, the “first purely digital work of art ever offered by a major auction house.”

NFT stands for “non-fungible token,” and it can technically contain anything digital, including drawings, animated GIFs, songs etc. NFTs allow you to buy and sell ownership of unique digital items and keep track of who owns them using the blockchain.

Critics of the rise of NFTs question the trend and see it as a monetizing hype surrounding digital art. As NFTs allow artists to sell unique pieces of art, digital works can also be sold off as authentic even if they are not.

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AI can persuade People to make wrong Decisions

Posted by Peter Rudin on 5. March 2021 in News No Comments

In July 2020, OpenAI unveiled GPT-3, a language model that was easily the largest known at the time. Put simply, GPT-3 is trained to predict the next word in a sentence, much like how a text message autocomplete feature works.

Academics are increasingly concerned that AI could be co-opted by malicious actors to foment discord by spreading misinformation, disinformation, and outright lies. DALL-E, a version of GPT-3 generates images from text descriptions, potentially visually  distorting reality.

In a large-scale survey leveraging OpenAI’s language model, the researchers found AI’s advice can “corrupt” people even when they are aware the source of the advice is AI.

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New ‘Liquid-AI’ Learns Continuously from Its Experience

Posted by Peter Rudin on 19. February 2021 in News No Comments

While most machine learning algorithms cannot hone their skills beyond an initial training period, a  new approach, called a liquid neural network, has a kind of built-in “neuroplasticity.”

The algorithm’s architecture was inspired by the mere 302 neurons making up the nervous system of C. elegans, a tiny nematode (or worm).

At a time when big players like OpenAI and Google are regularly making headlines with gargantuan machine learning algorithms, it is a fascinating example of an alternative approach headed in the opposite direction.

In contrast, in a liquid neural network, the parameters are allowed to continue changing over time and with experience. The AI learns on the job.

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Is Personality Residing in the Brain?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 5. February 2021 in News No Comments

A team of Caltech researchers from the disciplines of neuroscience, psychology and philosophy discuss the long-standing question: What is personality? Most studies measure personality in various ways, and they are often ambiguous about what personality really is.

The researchers believe that genes and environment are causes of personality and that behaviour results from personality, but personality itself is located in the brain.

The researchers propose a method to discover where personality resides in the brain, and how it relates to other psychological functions including memory and emotion and they propose ways of testing those models using the tools of neuroscience.

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AI to Mimic the Brain’s Prefrontal Cortex for Learning

Posted by Peter Rudin on 22. January 2021 in News No Comments

The biological brain has served as an inspiration for AI-machine-learning designs, such as artificial neural networks used for deep learning. Now AI is being deployed as a tool to help unravel how the brain works.

For example, how and why is the brain capable of adaptive lifelong learning? The precise neural mechanisms on how the brain achieves this has not been entirely clear.

In a recent neuroscience study, researchers from the Salk Institute and the University of Massachusetts Amherst created AI machine-learning model to provide new insights on how the brain’s prefrontal cortex operates when it comes to lifelong learning.

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How to Make AI More Democratic

Posted by Peter Rudin on 8. January 2021 in News No Comments

A new type of learning model uses far less data than conventional AIs, allowing researchers with limited resources to contribute. One such recent advance is called “less than one”–shot learning (LO-shot learning), developed by Ilia Sucholutsky and Matthias Schonlau from the University of Waterloo.

Allowing AIs to learn with less plentiful data helps to democratize the field of artificial intelligence. Not only does LO-shot learning make the barriers to entry lower by reducing training costs and lowering data requirements, but it also provides more flexibility for users to create novel data sets.

By reducing the time spent on data and architecture engineering, researchers looking to leverage AI can spend more time focusing on the practical problems they are aiming to solve.

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