Author: Peter Rudin

The Stanford AI100 Report: Is AI at an Inflection Point?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 22. October 2021 in Essay No Comments

This essay is an attempt to define  why a highly reputable scientific community, authoring an eighty-two pages report, comes to the conclusion that AI is at an inflection point.

AI technologies that augment human capabilities can be very valuable in situations where humans and AI have complementary strengths.

However, we are confronted with the fact that AI-systems are being used in the service of disinformation with the potential to become a threat to democracy and a tool for fascism.

The success of the field will be measured by how it has empowered all people, not by how efficiently machines devalue the people we are trying to help.

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AI Fairness Requires Fighting Bias with Bias

Posted by Peter Rudin on 15. October 2021 in News No Comments

Bias is a tricky term in general, and psychiatrists have developed long treatises trying to explain what it is and how it works.

Most biases tend to creep into AI unintentionally, both in the coding of the algorithm and the selection of training data. This means organizations must actively counter this bias by fostering diversity, training employees to spot biases and in general constantly monitor the output of AI processes to ensure that the results are fair.

Without the ability to account for the bias that exists all around us, it will never provide equal service to all. And even then, we must avoid the temptation to think that we will achieve a state of perfect fairness from AI.

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News-Addiction: What are the Issues?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 8. October 2021 in Essay No Comments

As digital transformation accelerates, interacting with ‘virtuality’ as an abstraction of the real world has created new forms of media-consumption.

The human psyche is marked by a lifelong tendency to seek and acquire information. Novelty-seeking is one of the traits that keeps people healthy and happy.

Curiosity derives from an ‘information-gap’ – the difference between what you know and what you want to know, hence News-Addiction might evolve.

As a result, a relentless drive to fill the ‘information-gap’, is further enhanced by a feeling of increasing boredom with nothing to make-up the lack of ‘news’ unless the addictive cycle of relentless and compulsive news gathering is resumed.

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A Single Neuron is a Computer a New Study Finds

Posted by Peter Rudin on 1. October 2021 in News No Comments

Comparing brains to computers is a long and dearly held analogy in both neuroscience and computer science.

Deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, for example, is loosely modelled on the brain’s vast, layered networks of neurons.

In the study, the team found it took a five- to eight-layer neural network, or nearly 1,000 artificial neurons, to mimic the behavior of a single biological neuron from the brain’s cortex.

So far, following the brain’s blueprint has been a rewarding strategy. And if this work is any indication, future neural networks may well dwarf today’s networks in size and complexity.

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Neurophilosophy and a Thought-Model of AI-inspired Leadership

Posted by Peter Rudin on 24. September 2021 in Essay No Comments

Augmenting science with philosophy has opened-up complimentary paths of thought, enhancing the discussion as to how AI can reach human-level intelligence scientifically as well as philosophically.

When Patricia Churchland, coined the term ‘Neurophilosophy’  for the first time, few philosophers thought that neuroscience and philosophy had much to say to each other.

The  mindset of experimentation, taking advantage of AI-tools, will likely make the difference if an organization survives. While this stipulates  an awareness of philosophical thought, the question looms as to how we acquire and implement such a mindset, supported by the suggested thought model.

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Mapping the Brain Circuitry of Spirituality

Posted by Peter Rudin on 17. September 2021 in News No Comments

Over eighty percent of the global population consider themselves religious, with even more identifying as spiritual, but the neural substrates of spirituality and religiosity remain unresolved.

Scientists have long suspected that religiosity and spirituality could be mapped to specific brain circuits.

Now, a new study using novel technology and the human connectome, a map of neural connections, has identified a brain circuit that seems to mediate this aspect of our personality.

These findings suggest that spirituality and religiosity map to a common brain circuit previously implicated in fear conditioning, pain modulation and altruistic behavior.

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Neuroscience, its Impact on AI and Beyond

Posted by Peter Rudin on 10. September 2021 in Essay No Comments

With the ongoing progress in Neuroscience and brain research, the question looms if ANNs current models and its algorithms need not to be adjusted based on new knowledge about our brain’s functionality.

The existing concepts of mimicking the human brain for achieving human-like intelligence need an overhaul. As result of the huge research efforts engaged in cracking the neural code, we will witness the deployment of new AI-products and services.

Economic concerns and the continuing demand for higher productivity will drive this change. Likewise human concerns as we experience them today with issues about guaranteed income, distribution of wealth,  ethics and government control will intensify.

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Can AI Predict Behavior from Brain Activity?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 3. September 2021 in News No Comments

A new neuroscience study backed with funding from the European Research Council, published in eLife,  demonstrates how an AI deep learning algorithm is able to predict behavior by decoding brain activity.

In efforts to decipher the neural code, the researchers created an AI-based convolutional neural network (CNN,  to predict behaviors from neural activity.

In the last step, the team tested the AI-algorithm with electrocorticography recordings taken from brains of humans while moving their fingers.

The researchers demonstrated successfully that measuring neural activity can decode and predict finger movement and spatial behaviors with AI.

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A Paradigm Shift in AI and the Future of Content Production

Posted by Peter Rudin on 27. August 2021 in Essay No Comments

Due to their inherent capacity to correlate the entire internet content , transformer-based models like GPT-3 will radically change how AI systems will be built. With transformer-technology new applications will emerge that go way beyond its current capacity of processing text.

Creating high-value content engages humans that are knowledgeable in the technical domain of intelligent machines as well as humans knowledgeable in the domain of psychological behaviour.

This ‘co-creative’ effort has the potential of driving humanity to the next higher level of evolution while humans will continue in contributing their key asset: creativity and emotionality. The roadblocks of getting there, however, are huge.

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Consciousness Research: ‘Dopamine’ Plays a Key Role

Posted by Peter Rudin on 20. August 2021 in News No Comments

Consciousness is arguably one of the most important scientific topics there is. Without consciousness, there would after all be no science. But while we all know what it is like to be conscious – meaning that we have personal awareness and respond to the world around us – it has turned out to be near impossible to explain exactly how it arises from the hardware of the brain. This is dubbed the “hard” problem of consciousness.

The brain is more than just a congregation of different areas. Brain cells also rely on a number of chemicals to communicate with other cells, enabling a number of brain functions. Dopamine is a chemical primarily released to the cortex region of the brain. New research gives hope for treatments of consciousness disorders, using drugs that act on dopamine.

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