Author: Peter Rudin

Can AI Systems Understand Human Values?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 13. September 2019 in News No Comments

Machine learning (ML) algorithms can already recognize patterns far better than the humans they’re working for. This allows them to generate predictions and make decisions in a variety of high-stakes situations. However, for ML systems to truly be successful, they need to understand human values.

Researchers still need to answer empirical questions related to things like how values evolve and change over time. And once all the empirical questions are answered, researchers need to contend with the philosophical questions that don’t have an objective answer, like how those values should be interpreted and how they should guide an AGI’s decision-making.

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Is Alphabet’s DeepMind Subsidiary on the Right Track?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 6. September 2019 in Essay No Comments

DeepMind, the world’s largest research-focused artificial intelligence operation, is losing money fast. The rising magnitude of DeepMind’s losses is impressive, more than USD 1 billion in the past three years, mostly related to its ongoing hiring of top researchers worldwide at very high salary levels with a current headcount of over 850 employees.

Advances in deep reinforcement learning have fueled DeepMind’s impressive victories in Go and the computer game StarCraft. However, this has hardly advanced DeepMind’s declared goal of being the world-leader in Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).

Today AI-research covers Neuroinformatics, Neurobiology and Neurophilosophy. Is DeepMind on the right track?

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How Governments can halt the rise of unfriendly Super-AI

Posted by Peter Rudin on 30. August 2019 in News No Comments

A super-AI raises two fundamental challenges for its inventors, as philosopher Nick Bostrom and others have pointed out. One is a control problem, which is how to make sure the super-AI has the same objectives as humanity.

The second is a political problem, which is how to ensure that the benefits of a super-intelligence do not go only to a small elite, causing massive social and wealth inequalities.

In theory, a single country or region (such as the EU) could carry the costs and effort involved in tackling the problems and ethics of super-AI. But all countries would benefit, and super-AI would become a public good rather than an unstoppable private monopoly.

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Is Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) a Myth?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 23. August 2019 in Essay No Comments

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be defined as the ability of a machine to perform any task that a human can. Although existing applications highlight the ability of AI to perform tasks with greater efficiency than humans, they are not generally intelligent.

Many researchers believe that AGI will be reached sometime this century, others consider AGI to be a myth. Reflecting on theory of mind provides one way of testing AGI’s viability.

Without some sort of radical breakthrough in design, sentient machines that can comprehend and communicate empathy and emotions will remain science fiction. Life is analogue not digital. The idea that digital intelligence can reach biological intelligence is likely to remain a myth.

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Saving humanities from the STEM promised Land?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 16. August 2019 in News No Comments

Education and labor policy makers, tech-believers and business followers should realize that for a graduate ‘entering the job market’ is not about one’s first job. On the contrary, it is preparing to manage a very extensive career, holding several occupations and even different professions (with diverse contract typologies and affiliations) throughout one’s life.

In the face of the STEMs, we see how history, philosophy, literature, languages and art in any shape or form, are much more than mere diplomas to be accumulated to get a job. They are knowledge to be gathered forever for one’s personal life as well. Education is knowledge accrued and of tremendous relevance in the construct of one’s personality.

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Facebook’s Brain-Machine Interface

Posted by Peter Rudin on 9. August 2019 in News No Comments

Somewhat unceremoniously, Facebook recently provided an update on its brain-computer interface project. In a paper published in the journal Nature Communications, a team of researchers described a prototypical system capable of reading and decoding study subjects’ brain activity while they speak.

A set of machine learning algorithms equipped with phonological speech models learned to decode specific speech sounds from the data and to distinguish between questions and responses.

High-resolution brain-machine interfaces, or BCI for short, are predictably complicated — they must be able to read neural activity to pick out which groups of neurons are performing which tasks.

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Networked-AI: From Vision to Reality

Posted by Peter Rudin on 2. August 2019 in Essay No Comments

Networked-AI is a tool to support humans, it is human-centered. While connectivity and reach of the network are global, the application of Networked-AI is executed locally, contributing to the prosperity of the community and the national budget.

Networked-AI is an emerging property driven by three scientific disciplines: Information Technology, Neuroscience and Neurophilosophy.

The distribution of digital knowledge is a development process that will take place over many years to come. To follow and understand this fundamental change, AI needs to be demystified to the point where any individual with an average IQ can comprehend what is happening.

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Has Humanity reached ‘Peak Intelligence’?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 26. July 2019 in News No Comments

Since the intelligence test was invented more than 100 years ago, our IQ scores have been steadily increasing. Even the average person today would have been considered a genius compared to someone born in 1919 – a phenomenon known as the Flynn effect.

The most recent evidence suggests that this trend may now be slowing. It may even be reversing, meaning that we have already passed the summit of human intellectual potential.

Looking to the future, the “reverse Flynn effect” and the potential drop in IQs should certainly cause us to take stock of the ways we are using our brains. Maybe our educational concepts must be modified.

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The Cultural Shift provoked by Networked AI

Posted by Peter Rudin on 19. July 2019 in Essay No Comments

Culture is vital because it enables its members to function with one another without the need to negotiate meaning at every moment.

As our daily lives are more and more penetrated and influenced by networked AI, its consequences require reflection. This mindset is a must to take advantage of the ever-growing usability and capability of networked AI.

To successfully adapt to a cultural shift requires foremost two things: life-long education and the implementation of ethics that define and secure our values in a new age of human existence.

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Could empathic AI be the next stage in human evolution?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 12. July 2019 in News No Comments

Designing human-centric AI interactions, optimized to develop trusted relationships between AI and humans, presents the largest opportunity for human and societal advancement in the modern era.

The potential for human-centered AI design is to augment human empathy, improving the 95% of all decisions that are made subconsciously.

If we are to effectively partner with technology to enhance ourselves – rationally and emotionally – we must design interactions that promote and develop trust between AI and people.

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