Author: Peter Rudin

AI and Surveillance Capitalism, what about Autonomy?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 26. February 2021 in Essay No Comments

Surveillance capitalism is an economic system centred around the commodification of personal data with the core purpose of profit-making.

In her latest book ‘The Age of Surveillance Capitalism’ Shoshana Zuboff, Professor at Harvard, provides a detailed examination of the unprecedented power of surveillance capitalism and the quest by powerful corporations to predict and control our behaviour. In her view industrial capitalism exploited nature while surveillance capitalism now exploits human nature.

The stronger personal autonomy is, the more fulfilled and productive a human being may become in adapting to today’s socioeconomic demands. Hence, a mindset of personal autonomy is fundamental vis-à-vis the potential negative impacts of surveillance capitalism.

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New ‘Liquid-AI’ Learns Continuously from Its Experience

Posted by Peter Rudin on 19. February 2021 in News No Comments

While most machine learning algorithms cannot hone their skills beyond an initial training period, a  new approach, called a liquid neural network, has a kind of built-in “neuroplasticity.”

The algorithm’s architecture was inspired by the mere 302 neurons making up the nervous system of C. elegans, a tiny nematode (or worm).

At a time when big players like OpenAI and Google are regularly making headlines with gargantuan machine learning algorithms, it is a fascinating example of an alternative approach headed in the opposite direction.

In contrast, in a liquid neural network, the parameters are allowed to continue changing over time and with experience. The AI learns on the job.

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Realigning AI Research to Achieve Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)

Posted by Peter Rudin on 12. February 2021 in Essay No Comments

To understand the complexity of achieving AGI it is worthwhile looking at some of the capabilities that AGI will need to master such as sensory perception, natural language understanding, creativity, and social and emotional engagement.

Brain processes underly not only simple motoric behaviours such as walking and eating but also complex cognitive acts and behaviour that we regard as basically human: thinking, speaking and creating works of art.

The focus of AGI research is to integrate expertise in Neuroscience with expertise in Neuropsychology and Neuroinformatics. With these disciplines combined, problem-solving will be applicable to a much wider spectrum than presently available with Narrow-AI.

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Is Personality Residing in the Brain?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 5. February 2021 in News No Comments

A team of Caltech researchers from the disciplines of neuroscience, psychology and philosophy discuss the long-standing question: What is personality? Most studies measure personality in various ways, and they are often ambiguous about what personality really is.

The researchers believe that genes and environment are causes of personality and that behaviour results from personality, but personality itself is located in the brain.

The researchers propose a method to discover where personality resides in the brain, and how it relates to other psychological functions including memory and emotion and they propose ways of testing those models using the tools of neuroscience.

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Dealing with Complexity? Try Collective Intelligence & AI

Posted by Peter Rudin on 29. January 2021 in Essay No Comments

Generating ideas through discussions with employees, customers and other external parties represents one way in which collective intelligence is commonly used.

Collecting ideas and feedback from a greater number of diverse individuals generates large data sets for training artificial neural networks. The combination of collective internet-connectivity with knowledge will introduce new IT-platforms supporting AI-focused value generation.

Facing increasing complexity, AI-empowered human resource management will be key. The capacity of building and managing teams with diverse competencies and distinct behavioural profiles to optimize man-machine interactions will define a new competitive landscape for the ‘survival of the fittest’

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AI to Mimic the Brain’s Prefrontal Cortex for Learning

Posted by Peter Rudin on 22. January 2021 in News No Comments

The biological brain has served as an inspiration for AI-machine-learning designs, such as artificial neural networks used for deep learning. Now AI is being deployed as a tool to help unravel how the brain works.

For example, how and why is the brain capable of adaptive lifelong learning? The precise neural mechanisms on how the brain achieves this has not been entirely clear.

In a recent neuroscience study, researchers from the Salk Institute and the University of Massachusetts Amherst created AI machine-learning model to provide new insights on how the brain’s prefrontal cortex operates when it comes to lifelong learning.

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Quantum: from Physics to Biology. What about AI?

Posted by Peter Rudin on 15. January 2021 in Essay No Comments

Quantum mechanics provides the calculation of probabilities of how physical systems can behave. It is typically applied in defining the behaviour of molecules, atoms and sub-atomic particles.

Unlike conventional computers, which have bits that can exist in either state of 0 or 1, with quantum computers the quantum bit (or qubit for short) can exist in additional states. It can exist as a discrete state (0 or 1) or as a superposition of both states, adding a third dimension for the processing of data.

Quantum states correspond to probabilities rather than to absolute values. This fact also implies that human analysis and interpretation is still required in problem-solving. The complexity of problems we can solve, however, far exceeds what conventional AI is capable of handling today. The future is Quantum-AI.

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How to Make AI More Democratic

Posted by Peter Rudin on 8. January 2021 in News No Comments

A new type of learning model uses far less data than conventional AIs, allowing researchers with limited resources to contribute. One such recent advance is called “less than one”–shot learning (LO-shot learning), developed by Ilia Sucholutsky and Matthias Schonlau from the University of Waterloo.

Allowing AIs to learn with less plentiful data helps to democratize the field of artificial intelligence. Not only does LO-shot learning make the barriers to entry lower by reducing training costs and lowering data requirements, but it also provides more flexibility for users to create novel data sets.

By reducing the time spent on data and architecture engineering, researchers looking to leverage AI can spend more time focusing on the practical problems they are aiming to solve.

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Decision Making: AI and the Limits of Common-Sense

Posted by Peter Rudin on 1. January 2021 in Essay 1 Comment

Common-sense represents all the background knowledge we have about the physical and social world absorbed over our lives. It includes such things as our understanding of basic physics as well as our expectations about how humans behave.

Based on common-sense, a heuristic is defined as a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently. While heuristics can speed up the decision-making process, they can introduce errors.

Common-sense reasoning is considered the holy grail towards the goal of reaching human-level AI. While, so far, AI has not succeeded to overcome this barrier, there are indications that AI will eventually support various decision-making scenarios.

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Beethoven and the Power of Joy for Christmas

Posted by Peter Rudin on 25. December 2020 in News No Comments

Beethoven’s music is the sound of human freedom at its core – the freedom of our minds. Unsurprisingly, a composer who could capture the very essence of human freedom in sound would himself come to be cast in the image of liberating music from convention.

Today, Beethoven’s music remains deeply connected with a true humanism, which has the principles of freedom and self-determination at its heart. The composer’s music grew out of the age of European Enlightenment, which located human reason and the self at the centre of knowledge.

And as we are at the threshold of exploring and eventually mastering Artificial Intelligence, reaching new frontiers of knowledge, we must uphold the value and joy of our mind of freedom.

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